|Botanical Nomenclature||Vitis vinifera|
|Common Name||Common Grape Vine|
|Taxonomy- Family||Ampelidaceae, Vitaceae|
|Distinguishing Features of the Plant||Vitis vinifera is a climbing, deciduous plant growing up to 35m, with large, wide, palmate, smooth, green in summer and red in autumn leaves and small, green flowers in inflorescences. The edible fruits have varying shapes (round or oblong), size (large or small) and colors (yellow, green, violet or blue) and they look like rail (Grapes). The trunk has many branches and many shoots and tendrils, with which it climbs. The shoots become woody vine branches during the year, from which the single-stemmed leaves grow. The flowering lasts from May to June and the fruiting happens from August to September, which usually begins after the third year of cultivation and with proper pruning.|
|Region Found||In Greece are currently cultivated many different species, either indigenous, or imported from abroad. Local varieties of the plant include species from Peloponnese (Corinth, Nemea, Mantineia), the Aegean islands (Athiri, Assyrtico, Moscat of Lemnos), Macedonia (Mount Athos and Pagaion species). In Epirus, local vitis vinifera includes the varieties Debina and Vlahico.|
|Part of the Plant with Active Substances||Fruit, leaves, shoots.|
|Active Substances||Tartaric acid, malic acid, carbohydrates (mainly dextrose and fructose), pectin, tannins, inocid (cyanoglycosides), flavonoids and polyphenols (quercetin, rutin, kaempferol, luteol, tocopherols, proanthocyanidins), starch, gum, calcium, fatty acid and ethereal oil. The fruit's juice contains xanthophyll, carotene, vitamins A, B, C, E, organic acids (malic acid, salicylic acid, citric acid, formic acid). The seeds contain 20% essential oil and pectins.|
|Pharmacological Effects - Therapeutic Applications||The plant has laxative, diuretic, tonic, astringent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, laxative and antioxidant properties. It is recommended for the treatment of obesity, reduced cardiac, kidney and liver function, chronic diarrhea, dyspepsia, dropsy, nausea and infectious diseases such as pneumonia and typhoid. The leaves and the shoots are externally applied to the skin in the form of poultice against phlebitis, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, menorrhagia and nose bleeding (epistaxes). The herbal tea is administered either orally or applied externally to the skin against internal bleeding and oral ulcers (washes). Finally, due to its antioxidant action it stimulates the immune system, impoves blood circulation in the retina and prevents visual impairment and retinal diseases in elderly, it protects pulmonary function and it has anti-aging, as well as cardioprotective properties.|
|Method of Administration||The plant is administered in the form of herbal tea (5g of dried fruits and leaves in 100mL of boiled water for 5-10min, 3 times a day), infusion (30g of dried herb in 1L of boiling water for 10-15min, one cup three times a day, before eating), herbal extract (1: 1 parts of plant and aqueous extract, 50 drops, 1-4 times a day) and tincture (1: 5 parts of plant and ethyl alcohol 70 °, 50 to 100 drops, 1 -3 times a day). It is applied externally to the skin in the form of poultice (made from the fresh leaves and stems), essential oil, infusion (a spoon of dried leaves in 1L of boiling water for 10-15min, which is applied in the form of eye washes) and herbal tea (60-80g of the dried leaves and fruits in 1L of boiled water for 15 minutes, 3-4 times daily). The fruits are edible and they are consumed for their antioxidant action.
Warning: The use of herb preparations is not recommended without seeking advice from your physician or pharmacist. The substances they contain may interact with the subscribed drugs that the patient already takes, thus eliminating their therapeutic efficacy or inducing toxicity. They may also burden further weakened vital functions of the body thus exposing the patient to increased morbidity and life threatened conditions.
|Toxicity- Adverse Effects||No side effects have been reported. Fruits' consumption should be avoided from patients with diabete and from those who suffer from constipation.|
|References||1)http://www.iama.gr/ethno/naousa/vitisvinifera.htm 2) http://www.herbwisdom.com/herb-grape-whole.html 3)http://www.medicinalplants-pharmacognosy.com/herbs-medicinal-plants/grape-benefits/ 4)http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-472-grape.aspx?activeingredientid=472&activeingredientname=grape 5)http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/herb/grape-seed|