|Botanical Nomenclature||Dryopteris filix-mas|
|Common Name||Worm Fern|
|Distinguishing Features of the Plant||Dryopteris filix-mas is a perennial (fern) plant growing up to 120cm, with large, lanceolate, pinnate leaves, formed directly from the base having many, red seeds-follicles. The stalk is hairy and the fluffy stems are green only in mild climates. The root is horizontal, with oblong tubers, while the plant has no flowers. The fruiting and the harvesting take place from June to September. In medicine, is used the rhizome of the plant which is harvested from September to October.|
|Region Found||Ioannina (Smolikas, Metsovo, Vikos-Aoos)|
|Part of the Plant with Active Substances||Leaves, root|
|Active Substances||Essential oil, tannins, aspidinol, almpaspidin, phloraspin, filicine acid, fats, gallic acid, acetic acid, carbohydrates, starch, albumin, cellulose.|
|Pharmacological Effects - Therapeutic Applications||The plant has anthelmintic, healing, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, antibacterial and antipyretic properties. It is carefully used as anthelmintic, with concomitant administration of cathartic salt (Na2SO4 or magnesium sulfate) with no oil or alcohol, as the drug must be expeled two hours after its administration in orded to avoid poisoning. It is recommended in the form of herbal tea for the treatment of internal bleeding, haematuria, mumps, common cold, influenza, measles, pneumonia and meningitis. It is applied externally to the skin in the form of compresses against pimples and wounds and in the form of powder against wounds and skin ulcers. Also, in homeopathy it is used to treat wounds, varicose veins and ulcers. Finally, due its content in caustic potash it is used for soap and glass manufacture.|
|Method of Administration||The plant is administered in the form of herbal tea (a spoon of dried herb in a cup of boiled water for 5-10min, 3 times a day). It is applied externally to the skin in the form of compresses made from the herbal tea and powder.
Warning: The use of herb preparations is not recommended without seeking advice from your physician or pharmacist. The substances they contain may interact with the subscribed drugs that the patient already takes, thus eliminating their therapeutic efficacy or inducing toxicity. They may also burden further weakened vital functions of the body thus exposing the patient to increased morbidity and life threatened conditions.
|Toxicity- Adverse Effects||Overdose may cause nausea, vomiting, delirium, blindness, shortness of breath and cardiac arrest. Plant's consumption should be avoided during pregnancy, to children and to patients with liver problems.|
|References||1)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Dryopteris+filix-mas 2)http://www.drugs.com/npp/male-fern.html 3)http://practicalplants.org/wiki/Dryopteris_filix-mas 4) http://www.naturalmedicinalherbs.net/herbs/d/dryopteris-filix-mas=male-fern.php 5)https://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/f/ferns-08.html|