|Botanical Nomenclature||Carum carvi|
|Common Name||Meridian Fennel, Persian Cumin|
|Distinguishing Features of the Plant||Carum carvi is a biennial plant growing from 30 to 70cm, with smooth, fern-like green leaves in opposite pairs and small, pink or white flowers in umbels. The fruits are brown, crescent-shaped achenes with five pale ridges. The flowering lasts from May to July, the fruiting happens in August and the harvesting takes place from June to August.|
|Region Found||Ioannina (Peristeri, Gramos, Smolikas Metsovo Pindos, Vikos-Aoos)|
|Part of the Plant with Active Substances||Fruits (seeds)|
|Active Substances||Essential oil which contains 60% carvone, 20% limonene and other compounds such as carveol, carvone, dihydrocarvone, pinene, volatile aldehydes, furfural and thujone. The plant also contains proteins, flavonoids (lutein, carotene, cryptoxanthin and xanthin), minerals (iron, copper, calcium, potassium, manganese, selenium, zinc, magnesium), vitamins A, B, C, E.|
|Pharmacological Effects - Therapeutic Applications||The plant has spasmolytic, digestive, analgesic, emmenagogue, antipyretic and galactagogue properties. It is recommended in the form of herbal tea against flatulence, indigestion, colic especially in infants, rheumatism, pleurisy, bronchitis, irritable bowel syndrome, gastro-enteritis, convulsions, muscle cramps, nausea and vomiting. Also, it is used to prevent asthma and allergic asthma symptoms such as discomfort during sleep and severe cough. In folk medicine it is administered against anorexia, constipation, bloating, intestinal gas, stomach and intestinal spasms, as well in order to increase milk's secretion from the mammary glands|
|Method of Administration||The plant is administered in the form of herbal tea (3 spoons of dried herb in a cup of boiled water for 5-10min, 3 times a day) and infusion (2 spoons of dried herb in a cup of boiling water for 10-15min, three times a day). In folk medicine it is administered as galactagogue in the form of infusion from a mixture of herbs containg carum carvi (2 parts), fennel (1 part) and anise (1 part).
Warning: The use of herb preparations is not recommended without seeking advice from your physician or pharmacist. The substances they contain may interact with the subscribed drugs that the patient already takes, thus eliminating their therapeutic efficacy or inducing toxicity. They may also burden further weakened vital functions of the body thus exposing the patient to increased morbidity and life threatened conditions.
|Toxicity- Adverse Effects||Plant's consumption may cause hypoglycaemia. It should be avoided from patients who take anti-diabetic medication (glimepiride, glyburide, insulin, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, chlorpropamide, glipizide, tolbutamide etc)|
|References||1) http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/caraway-seed.html 2)http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-204-caraway.aspx?activeingredientid=204&activeingredientname=caraway 3)https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/essential-oils/health-benefits-of-caraway-essential-oil.html 4)http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail9.php 5)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3210012/|