|Botanical Nomenclature||Primula veris or Primula officinalis|
|Common Name||Common Cowslip, Cowslip Primrose|
|Distinguishing Features of the Plant||Primula veris is a herbaceous, perennial plant growing from 8 to 20cm, with lanceolate, oval, wrinkled, pubescent leaves and yellow-gold, with orange edges and tubular calyx, fragrant, hermaphrodite flowers, in umbrella-shaped inflorescence at the edge of a long axis. The plant has a thick stalk, dark coloured, branched root and capsule formed fruits. The flowering lasts from April to May and the harvesting takes place from July to August|
|Part of the Plant with Active Substances||Root, leaves, flowers|
|Active Substances||Saponins (5-10%), alpha-primrose acid, glycosides, flavones, primeverin, primulaverin (glycosides), tannins, salicylates, essential oil (called Mannite), phenols.|
|Pharmacological Effects - Therapeutic Applications||The plant has expectorant, diuretic, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, sedative, anticonvulsant and sweating properties. It is recommended in the form of herbal tea against pericarditis, dropsy, kidney stones, headaches and insomnia. Also, it is used against cough, bronchitis, whooping cough, pneumonia, neuralgia and tremor. The petals of the flower have astringent properties and the essential oil is applied externally to the skin to prevent wounds' infection and to treat bruises. In homeopathy it is administered in the form of tincture made from fresh plant against renal diseases and neuralgia.|
|Method of Administration||The plant is administered in the form of herbal tea (a spoon of dried herb in a cup of boiled water for 5-10min, 3 times a day), infusion (2 spoons of dried herb in a cup of boiling water for 10-15min, three times a day) and tincture (2-4ml, three times a day). It is applied externally to the skin as astringent and anti-inflammatory in the form of poultice.
Warning: The use of herb preparations is not recommended without seeking advice from your physician or pharmacist. The substances they contain may interact with the subscribed drugs that the patient already takes, thus eliminating their therapeutic efficacy or inducing toxicity. They may also burden further weakened vital functions of the body thus exposing the patient to increased morbidity and life threatened conditions.
|Toxicity- Adverse Effects||Plant's administration should be avoided from patients with aspirin sensitivity and to those who take anticoagulant therapy (warfarin or other anticoagulants). Saponins may cause hypotension, while overdose or prolonged use should be avoided from patients who take antihypertensive medication. Finally, plant's consumption may cause gastrointestinal irritation.|
|References||1)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Primula+veris 2)https://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cowsl112.html 3)http://www.herbal-supplement-resource.com/cowslip-herb.html 4)http://herbs-treatandtaste.blogspot.gr/2011/03/cowslip-primula-veris-medicinal.html 5)http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-165-cowslip.aspx?activeingredientid=165&activeingredientname=cowslip|