|Botanical Nomenclature||Paris quadrifolia|
|Common Name||Herb-Paris, True Lover's Knot|
|Distinguishing Features of the Plant||Paris quadrifolia is a herbaceous, perennial plant growing from 30 to 40cm, with oval leaves in rosette, solitary, yellow, hermaphrodite flower with four petals and blue-black, spherical fruits, which contain on average 34 seeds. The seeds are brown and oval. The flowering and the harvesting take place from April to June.|
|Region Found||Ioannina (Pindos, Smolikas)|
|Part of the Plant with Active Substances||The whole plant, especially the fruits and the rhizome.|
|Active Substances||Paristyphnin, paridin, pennogenin (haemolytic saponins), citric acid, paridol, ecdysterone|
|Pharmacological Effects - Therapeutic Applications||The plant has antirheumatic, laxative, aphrodisiac, spasmolytic, healing and anti-inflammatory properties. In homeopathy it is used for the treatment of bronchitis, cough, rheumatism, colic, headache, neuralgia and digestive disorders. Also, it is used against muscle cramps, colic and heartbeats. The fruits juice is applied externally to the skin against eyes' inflammation, while in the form of ointment it is applied against swelling and skin inflammation. In folk medicine of some countries such as Russia the seeds and the fruits are used for their aphrodisiac properties. Attention required when high doses are be consumed, as the whole plant has narcotic, opium-like properties, and it may cause nausea, vomiting, vertigo and death, especially in young children.|
|Method of Administration||The plant is applied externally to the eyes in the form of fresh fruit juice and to the skin in the form ointment made from dried fruits and seeds as inflammatory. In homeopathy it is administered in the form of tincture and in folk medicine of the northern European countries in the form of herbal tea (3 spoons of dried leaves and root in a cup of boiled water for 5-10min, 2-3 times a day) for its aphrodisiac properties.
Warning: The use of herb preparations is not recommended without seeking advice from your physician or pharmacist. The substances they contain may interact with the subscribed drugs that the patient already takes, thus eliminating their therapeutic efficacy or inducing toxicity. They may also burden further weakened vital functions of the body thus exposing the patient to increased morbidity and life threatened conditions.
|Toxicity- Adverse Effects||High doses may cause nausea, vomiting, dizziness, abdominal pain, headache, diarrhea, delirium, sweating, dry throat, reduced cardiopulmonary function and death, especially in young people as well in poultry after plant's eating. As an antidote to poisoning is administered arsenic.|
|References||1) https://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/p/paris-08.html#con 2)http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-the-medicinal-uses-of-paris-quadrifolia.htm 3)http://www.botanical-online.com/alcaloidesparisquadrifoliaangles.htm 4)http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/plants-fungi/paris-quadrifolia-herb-paris 5)http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-163-herb%20paris.aspx?activeingredientid=163&activeingredientname=herb%20paris|