|Botanical Nomenclature||Malus domestica|
|Common Name||Apple Tree|
|Distinguishing Features of the Plant||Malus domestica is a deciduous tree growing from 5 to 18m, with wide foliage and smooth, gray-green or gray-red bark, in young plants. When the tree grows the bark turn in dark gray and it is more wrinkled. The leaves are oval, pointed and green and the flowers are fragrant, white or red, with five petals. Its fruits (apples) are spherical, fragrant, smooth, green, yellow or red. The flowering and the harvesting take place from April to June.|
|Part of the Plant with Active Substances||Root's surface, fruits|
|Active Substances||Malic acid, citric acid, tannins, pectin, araban, galactan, gelatin, quercetin, starch, vitamins A, C, E, proteins, carbohydrates (sucrose 4%, cellulose 0.90%, pentosan 0.50%, lignin 0.40%), fats, iron, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, phlorizin (in the cortex of the root). Acetic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, benzoic acid, caffeic acid, calcium oxalate, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, geraniol, hyperoside, isoquercetin, lactic acid, lutein, p-coumarin acid, protocatechuic acid, quercetin, rutin and alpha-ursolic acid .|
|Pharmacological Effects - Therapeutic Applications||The whole plant has antibacterial, anti-diarrheal, astringent, laxative, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It is recommended for the treatment of intestinal disorders, constipation, diarrhea, colitis, arthritic pain and diabetes. It is used for the treatment of alcoholism and neurasthenia, especially when it is associated with insomnia. Also, fresh fruits consumption may reduce LDL cholesterol, increase HDL cholesterol and protect the heart. In folk medicine the herbal tea and the fruit juice is used against cough, hoarseness, sore throat, bronchial secretions, gout, bladder and renal problems. It is used as gargles against throat irritation. The fruits' peel is astringent and it is used against intermittent fever, and in the form of powder for the treatment of gastroenteritis especially in children. The Bach flower essence (Crab apple), from the blooming branches, is used in alternative medicine. It is applied externally to the skin in the form of poultice against eczema,|
|Method of Administration||The plant is administered in the form of herbal tea (2 spoons of dried herb in a cup of boiled water for 5-10min, 3 times a day), infusion (1-2 spoons of dried herb in a cup of boiling water for 5-10min , 1-2 times a day) and powder. It is applied externally to the skin in the form of poultice made from the fresh plant. The fruits are edible and they are consumed either fresh or dried.
Warning: The use of herb preparations is not recommended without seeking advice from your physician or pharmacist. The substances they contain may interact with the subscribed drugs that the patient already takes, thus eliminating their therapeutic efficacy or inducing toxicity. They may also burden further weakened vital functions of the body thus exposing the patient to increased morbidity and life threatened conditions.
|Toxicity- Adverse Effects||No side effects have been reported after consumption of apples. Although, all plant parts contain hydrogen cyanide which is poisonous. This substance in a very small amount is not harmful, as it stimulates the respiration and improves digestion. However, in larger amounts it blocks mitochondrial respiration and leads to death.|
|References||1)http://herbalisten.blogspot.gr/2013/01/apple-malus-domestica.html 2)http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Malus+domestica 3)http://www.naturalmedicinalherbs.net/herbs/m/malus-domestica=apple.php 4)http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail424.php 5)http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-298-apple.aspx?activeingredientid=298|