|Botanical Nomenclature||Sanicula europaea|
|Common Name||Sanicle, Wood Sanicle|
|Taxonomy- Family||Umbelliferae, Apiaceae|
|Distinguishing Features of the Plant||Sanicula europaea is a herbaceous, perennial plant growing from 30 to 40cm, with smooth stems, palmate, toothed, shiny, long-stalked leaves and small, white or pink, hermaphrodite flowers in dense inflorescences. The fruits are spiny and are easily being stuck to clothes or to animals' fur, and by this way they are dispersed. The flowering lasts from May to July, the fruiting happens in July and leaves' harvesting takes place from May to June, shortly before the flowering, while root's harvesting takes place in summer. In northern climates, the flowering and seeds' ripening last until September.|
|Region Found||Ioannina (Vikos-Aoos)|
|Part of the Plant with Active Substances||Leaves, root|
|Active Substances||Saponins, tannins, bitter agents, essential oil, resins, pigments, starch|
|Pharmacological Effects - Therapeutic Applications||The plant has astringent, laxative, emmenagogue, healing, hemostatic and expectorant properties. It is recommended in the form of herbal tea for the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding, productive cough, nose bleeding, dysentery and diarrhea. It is applied externally to the skin in the form of poultice for the treatment of wound, injury, rash, chilblains and skin inflammation. It is administered in the form of gargles against oral inflammations, gums' diseases and sore throats. It is also used against hemorrhoids in the form of ointment. In folk medicine of some countries such as Austria it is administered either orally (herbal tea) or externally (ointment) for the treatment of infections and various skin problems, as well against several disorders of respiratory and gastrointestinal system.|
|Method of Administration||The plant is administered in the form of herbal tea (2 spoons of dried herb in a cup of boiled water for 10min, twice a day). It is applied externally to the skin as healing and hemostatic in the form of ointment and poultice.
Warning: The use of herb preparations is not recommended without seeking advice from your physician or pharmacist. The substances they contain may interact with the subscribed drugs that the patient already takes, thus eliminating their therapeutic efficacy or inducing toxicity. They may also burden further weakened vital functions of the body thus exposing the patient to increased morbidity and life threatened conditions.
|Toxicity- Adverse Effects||No side effects have been reported. Even if the leaves contain toxic saponins, their consumption doesn't cause any toxicity, as these saponins are not extensively absorbed by the human body. In addition, they are destroyed after heating. However, the saponins are toxic for fish and through food chain they may cause human toxicity, which is avoided by thorough cooking.|
|References||1)Bιβλίο: Τα φαρμακευτικά βότανα και οι θεραπευτικές τους ιδιότητες, Λάμπρου Π. Σπύρου, Αγροτικός εκδοτικός οίκος, Αθήνα 1981, Ά τόμος, σελίδες: 241, 2)http://www.henriettes-herb.com/eclectic/kings/sanicula.html 3)http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Sanicula+europaea 4)https://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/sanwoo14.html#con 5)http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-86-sanicle.aspx?activeingredientid=86&activeingredientname=sanicle|