|Botanical Nomenclature||Arnica montana|
|Common Name||Leopard's Bane, Mountain Arnica, Mountain Tobacco, Wolf's Bane|
|Taxonomy- Family||Compositae or Asteraceae|
|Distinguishing Features of the Plant||Arnica montana is a herbaceous, perennial plant growing from 20 to 60cm, with upright, pubescent, non-branched stem, oval, plush, green, spear-shaped leaves and large, yellow daisy-like flowers. The flowering and the harvesting take place from June to August.|
|Part of the Plant with Active Substances||Flowers in bloom|
|Active Substances||Essential oil which contains arnidiol, thymol and faradiol (triterpene alcohols), glucosides, polyacetylen, flavonoids (betuletol, eupafolin, flavonol, glucuronide, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetol), alkaloids, tannins, betaine, choline, trimethylamine, polysaccharides, triterpenoids ( sesquiterpenes, arnifolin, elenalin), arnicin, caffeic acid, carotenoids, phytosterols, resins.|
|Pharmacological Effects - Therapeutic Applications||The whole plant has anti-inflammatory, healing, antiseptic, sedative and antirheumatic properties. It is applied externally to the skin for the treatment of bruises, sprains, rheumatic pain, phlebitis, sprains, skin inflammations, muscular and rheumatic pain. It is recommended in the form of gargles against stomatitis and pharyngitis. The herbal tea is used to improve heart function and to stimulate the immune system. In folk medicine especially in Germany the herbal tea is used against fever, common cold, cough, bronchitis and rheumatism.|
|Method of Administration||The plant is mainly applied externally to the skin in the form of tincture (500mL of ethanol 70%, in 50g of freshly cut flowers, the tincture is exposured to sun or remains in a warm place for a week), ointment, cream, massage oil and gel. The herbal tea is used in folk medicine, although nowadays its oral administration is not recommended in medicine.
Warning: The use of herb preparations is not recommended without seeking advice from your physician or pharmacist. The substances they contain may interact with the subscribed drugs that the patient already takes, thus eliminating their therapeutic efficacy or inducing toxicity. They may also burden further weakened vital functions of the body thus exposing the patient to increased morbidity and life threatened conditions.
|Toxicity- Adverse Effects||Plant's oral administration should be avoided as it may cause vomiting, headache, spasms, sweating and bleeding. Opium and tannin are the antidotes in case of poisoning. It is applied only to un-scratched skin.|
|References||1)http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-721-arnica.aspx?activeingredientid=721&activeingredientname=arnica 2)http://www.drugs.com/npc/arnica.html 3)https://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/herb/arnica 4)http://articles.mercola.com/herbal-oils/arnica-oil.aspx 5)https://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/a/arnic058.html 6)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Arnica+montana|