|Botanical Nomenclature||Bryonia dioica|
|Common Name||English Mandrake, Ladies' Seal, Red Bryony, White Bryony|
|Distinguishing Features of the Plant||Bryonia dioica is a perennial plant growing up to 7m, with oval, heart-shaped or palmate leaves, small, monogenic, yellow flowers, monoecious or dioecious. The unripe fruits are green, while the ripe ones are red. The flowering and the harvesting take place from May to June.|
|Region Found||Epirus (Gramos)|
|Part of the Plant with Active Substances||Fruits, leaves, root|
|Active Substances||Triterpenes (cucurbitacins), alkaloids, bryonin, bryonicine, starch, sugar, wax, fatty acids, cellulose, trace elements, minerals, glycoproteins, lectins, gum, flavonoids.|
|Pharmacological Effects - Therapeutic Applications||The whole plant has laxative, sudorific, expectorant and anthelmintic properties. It is administered in the form of herbal tea for the treatment of inflammation, bronchitis, asthma, duodenal ulcer, hypertension and arthritis. It is applied externally to the skin against muscle cramps, skin diseases, rashes, abscesses, joint pain and pleurisy. In small quantities it is recommended for the treatment of gastric and intestinal disorders, lung and liver diseases, as well to stimulate urination especially in cases of fluid retention.|
|Method of Administration||The plant is administered in the form of herbal tea (a spoon of dried herb in a cup of boiled water for 5-10min, 3 times a day) and tincture (5-20 drops per day).
Warning: The use of herb preparations is not recommended without seeking advice from your physician or pharmacist. The substances they contain may interact with the subscribed drugs that the patient already takes, thus eliminating their therapeutic efficacy or inducing toxicity. They may also burden further weakened vital functions of the body thus exposing the patient to increased morbidity and life threatened conditions.
|Toxicity- Adverse Effects||The whole plant is highly toxic. Its consumption may cause skin irritation, even in recommended doses.|
|References||1)https://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/b/brywhi77.html#med 2)http://www.henriettes-herb.com/eclectic/kings/bryonia.html 3)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Bryonia+dioica 4)http://www.reherb.eu/el/content/bryonia-dioica 5)http://www.rodiaki.gr/article/91286/brywnia-h-dioikos 6)http://www.ellinikabaharika.gr/%CF%84%CE%B1-%CF%80%CF%81%CE%BF%CF%8A%CF%8C%CE%BD%CF%84%CE%B1-%CE%BC%CE%B1%CF%82/40-%CE%A6%CE%B1%CF%81%CE%BC%CE%B1%CE%BA%CE%B5%CF%85%CF%84%CE%B9%CE%BA%CE%AC-%CF%86%CF%85%CF%84%CE%AC-Medicinal-plants/652-%CE%92%CF%81%CF%85%CF%89%CE%BD%CE%AF%CE%B1-%CF%81%CE%AF%CE%B6%CE%B1-(-Bryoniae-radix-conc-)-(-Bryony-root-cut-)|