|Botanical Nomenclature||Citrus limon|
|Distinguishing Features of the Plant||Citrus limon is an evergreen tree growing from 2 to 7m, with fragrant, glandular, leathery, oval, slightly toothed, pointy, shiny, green leaves and small, white, with five petals flowers. The sharp edged fruits are oval, yellow, with tough pericarp, rich in essential oil. The branches, which have a lot of thorns, form a flattened crown. The flowers and the fruits grow at the same period. The flowering and the harvesting take place from April to June.|
|Part of the Plant with Active Substances||Fruit, seeds, bark, leaves.|
|Active Substances||Plant's juice contains citric acid, gum, malic acid, potassium citrate, calcium citrate, carbohydrates, albuminoid substances, iron, silicon, phosphorus. The pericarp is rich in essential oil, which contains limonene, pinene, citral, citronellal, terpineol, camphene, phellandrene, cumarins, flavonoids, vitamin C, carotenoids, mucus and calcium oxalate. The fresh fruits contain proteins, vitamins A, B, C, D, citric acid, malic acid, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, sodium, silicon. The white part of the pericarp contains hesperidin, while the seeds contain limonin.|
|Pharmacological Effects - Therapeutic Applications||The whole plant has antiseptic, anthelmintic, antiscorbutic, diuretic, astringent and toning properties. The herbal tea and the fruit's juice are used against sore throat, tonsillitis, digestive disorders, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and jaundice. The lemon juice is used for the treatment of fever, accompanied by intense thirst and anuria. In the form of gargles it is recommended against mouth and throat irritation. A few drops are applied externally to eyelids due to their sedative and astringent properties, against inflammations. The leaves have anticonvulsant properties and they are administered usually in the morning in the form of infusion, against intestinal colic. The bioflavonoids contained in fruits help to keep the arteries, capillaries and veins strong and elastic, as well to treat varicose veins and phlebitis.|
|Method of Administration||The plant is administered either orally or applied externally to the skin, in the form of herbal tea (5-12g of fresh leaves and fruit's peel in 300-500mL of boiling water for 10min, 3 times daily). It is used as anticonvulsant in the form of infusion (a spoon of dried leaves in a cup of boiling water for 5min, three times a day). The essential oil is applied externally to the skin as sedative and astringent.
Warning: The use of herb preparations is not recommended without seeking advice from your physician or pharmacist. The substances they contain may interact with the subscribed drugs that the patient already takes, thus eliminating their therapeutic efficacy or inducing toxicity. They may also burden further weakened vital functions of the body thus exposing the patient to increased morbidity and life threatened conditions.
|Toxicity- Adverse Effects||Plant's consumption may cause allergic reactions and skin irritation.|
|References||1) http://www.herbwisdom.com/herb-lemon.html 2) http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-545-lemon.aspx?activeingredientid=545& 3) http://www.drugs.com/npp/lemon.html 4) http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Citrus+limon 5) http://www.herb.gr/index.php/catalog/product/view/id/894/s/lemonia/|