|Botanical Nomenclature||Nicotiana tabacum|
|Distinguishing Features of the Plant||Νicotiana tabacum is an annual plant growing from 0,9 to 2m, with alternate, elliptical or lanceolate leaves, tubular, white, pink or red flowers in inflorescences. The stem is covered with short viscid-glandular hairs, which exude a yellow secretion containing nicotine. The kidney shaped fruits contain a lot of spores. The flowering lasts from July to September and the harvesting takes place all year round|
|Region Found||Ioannina, Thesprotia|
|Part of the Plant with Active Substances||Leaves, stem, roots, flowers|
|Active Substances||Nicotine, the characteristic component of Nicotiana tabacum, is a pyridine alkaloid, which is mainly found in the leaves. It has narcotic properties and its levels vary among species and climatic conditions. The plant also contain protein, fiber, fatty acids (linoleic acid), trilinolein, cholesterol, sterol, cycloartenol (triterpene alcohol), amino acids, minerals|
|Pharmacological Effects - Therapeutic Applications||The leaves have antispasmodic, diuretic, expectorant, sedative, muscle relaxant, antiseptic, insect repellent, irritant and emetic properties. It is applied to the skin in the form of poultice and ointment for the treatment of edema, muscle cramps, insect bites, skin irritation, ulcers and other skin diseases. In southern America it is recommended in the form of suppositories for the treatment of hernia, constipation, urinary retention, intestinal spasms, helminths and bloating. The herbal extract is used against trigeminal neuralgia, eyes' and ears' diseases, runny nose, toothache, common cold, fever, tetanus and rabies. Nicotiana tabacum is mainly used in tobacco industry, while many cultural groups used to chew the leaves due to their narcotic properties.|
|Method of Administration||Nowadays the plant is used in folk medicine as astringent and healing in the form of poultice made from the leaves. The plant is also used in tobacco industry, as well in order to isolate the alkaloid nicotine.
Warning: The use of herb preparations is not recommended without seeking advice from your physician or pharmacist. The substances they contain may interact with the subscribed drugs that the patient already takes, thus eliminating their therapeutic efficacy or inducing toxicity. They may also burden further weakened vital functions of the body thus exposing the patient to increased morbidity and life threatened conditions.
|Toxicity- Adverse Effects||Nicotine's impact on the central nervous system, due to its binding to the nicotinic receptors, are nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, sweating and palpitations. Also, it has narcotic and addictive properties.|
|References||1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1079499/ 2) https://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/t/tobacc21.html#med 3)http://nefeli.lib.teicrete.gr/browse2/steg/theka/2007/Siniolakis/attached-document/2007Siniolakis.pdf 4) http://www.naturalmedicinalherbs.net/herbs/n/nicotiana-tabacum=tobacco.php 5)http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Nicotiana+tabacum 6) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02660305|