|Botanical Nomenclature||Arum maculatum|
|Common Name||Adam And Eve, Adder's Root, Bobbins, Cows And Bulls, Cuckoo-Pint, Devils And Angels, Friar's Cowl, Jack In The Pulpit, Lords-And-Ladies, Naked Girls And Boys, Snakeshead, Wake Robin, Wild Arum|
|Distinguishing Features of the Plant||Arum maculatum is a biennial plant growing up to 0.5m, with oblong or lanceolate, large, green leaves, small, oval, red fruits and red flowers in inflorescence. The blooming lasts from April to May and the harvesting takes place from March to April|
|Part of the Plant with Active Substances||Root|
|Active Substances||Gums, proteins, carbohydrates, starch, acids, essential oil which contains the poisonous substance of 'aroine'.|
|Pharmacological Effects - Therapeutic Applications||The whole plant is used as antirheumatic, expectorant and laxative. The root and the leaves have astringent properties. Also, it is administered for the treatment of arthritis, insomnia, cough, runny nose, bronchitis and pneumonia. In homeopathy it is recommended in the form of poultice, which is applied externally to the skin against bleeding and flushes.|
|Method of Administration||The plant is administered as antirheumatic, expectorant and laxative in the form of powder from the dried root, dissolved in water (daily dose from 5 to 20g). It is applied externally to the skin in the form of poultice from the root and the leaves against rheumatic pain, sprains, boils and hematomas.
Warning: The use of herb preparations is not recommended without seeking advice from your physician or pharmacist. The substances they contain may interact with the subscribed drugs that the patient already takes, thus eliminating their therapeutic efficacy or inducing toxicity. They may also burden further weakened vital functions of the body thus exposing the patient to increased morbidity and life threatened conditions.
|Toxicity- Adverse Effects||The 'aroine' which is contained to the essential oil, is neurotoxic and skin irritant. Although the fruits can be consumed, after being cooked, as they are rich in starch. Vomiting is the way to treat poisoning, in order to remove the toxic substances from the body. It is recommended to heat the patient with poultices and heating pads and stimulate the cardiovascular system.|
|References||1) Bιβλίο: Τα φαρμακευτικά βότανα και οι θεραπευτικές τους ιδιότητες, Λάμπρου Π. Σπύρου, Αγροτικός εκδοτικός οίκος, Αθήνα 1981, A' τόμος, σελίδες: 211-212 2) Βιβλίο: Οδηγός των φαρμακευτικών φυτών, Paul Schauenberg, Ferdinand Paris, Εκδότης Μ. Γκιούρδας, Αθήνα 1981, σελίδες 281-282 3)The tradition of medicinal plants in Zagori, Epirus (northwestern Greece), M. Malamas and M. Marselos, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 31 (1992) 197-203,Elsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland Ltd. 4)http://medicinalherbinfo.org/herbs/Arum.html 5)http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/037887419290034O 6)http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cucko122.html|